Monthly Archives: June 2017

Gown

A gown, from medieval Latin gunna, is a usually loose outer garment from knee- to full-length worn by men and women in Europe from the early Middle Ages to the 17th century, and continuing today in certain professions; later, gown was applied to any full-length woman’s garment consisting of a bodice and attached skirt. A long, loosely fitted gown called a Banyan was worn by men in the 18th century as an informal coat. The gowns worn today by academics, judges, and some clergy derive directly from the everyday garments worn by their medieval predecessors, formalized into a uniform in the course of the 16th and 17th centuries. In women’s fashion, gown was used in English for any one-piece garment, but more often through the 18th century for an overgarment worn with a petticoat – called in French a robe. Compare this to the short gowns or bedgowns of the later 18th century.

Before the Victorian period, the word “dress” usually referred to a general overall mode of attire for either men or women, such as in the phrases “evening dress”, “morning dress”, “travelling dress”, “full dress”, “priest’s gown” which are white, and so on, rather than to any specific garment, and the most often used English word for a woman’s skirted garment was gown. By the early 20th century, both “gown” and “frock” were essentially synonymous with “dress”, although gown was more often used for a formal, heavy or full-length garment and frock or dress for a lightweight, shorter, or informal one. Only in the last few decades has “gown” lost its general meaning of a woman’s garment in the United States in favor of “dress”. Today, the usage is chiefly British, except in historical senses or in formal cases, such as evening gownand wedding gown. Formal gowns generally have a fitted bodice and a full-length full skirt.

Shirt

A shirt is a cloth garment for the upper body. Originally an undergarment worn exclusively by men, it has become, in American English, a catch-all term for a broad variety of upper-body garments and undergarments. In British English, a shirt is more specifically a garment with a collar, sleeves with cuffs, and a full vertical opening with buttons or snaps. A shirt can also be worn with a necktie under the shirt collar.

  • Camp shirt – a loose, straight-cut, short sleeved shirt or blouse with a simple placket front-opening and a “camp collar”.
  • Dress shirt – shirt with a formal (somewhat stiff) collar, a full-length opening at the front from the collar to the hem (usually buttoned), and sleeves with cuffs
  • White shirt – usually dress shirt which its colour is white
    • Dinner shirt – a shirt specifically made to be worn with male evening wear, e.g. a black tie or white tie.
    • Guayabera – an embroidered dress shirt with four pockets.
  • Poet shirt – a loose-fitting shirt or blouse with full bishop sleeves, usually with large frills on the front and on the cuffs.
  • T-shirt – also “tee shirt”, a casual shirt without a collar or buttons, made of a stretchy, finely knit fabric, usually cotton, and usually short-sleeved. Originally worn under other shirts, it is now a common shirt for everyday wear in some countries.
    • Long-sleeved T-shirt – a T-shirt with long sleeves that extend to cover the arms.
    • Ringer T-shirt – tee with a separate piece of fabric sewn on as the collar and sleeve hems
    • Halfshirt – a high-hemmed T-shirt
    • Sleeveless shirt – a shirt manufactured without sleeves, or one whose sleeves have been cut off, also called a tank top
      • A-shirt or vest or singlet (in British English) – essentially a sleeveless shirt with large armholes and a large neck hole, often worn by labourers or athletes for increased movability. Sometimes called a “wife beater” when worn without a covering layer.
      • Camisole – woman’s undershirt with narrow straps, or a similar garment worn alone (often with bra). Also referred to as a cami, shelf top, spaghetti straps or strappy top
  • Polo shirt (also tennis shirt or golf shirt) – a pullover soft collar short-sleeved shirt with an abbreviated button placket at the neck and a longer back than front (the “tennis tail”).
    • Rugby shirt – a long-sleeved polo shirt, traditionally of rugged construction in thick cotton or wool, but often softer today
    • Henley shirt – a collarless polo shirt
  • Baseball shirt (jersey) – usually distinguished by a three quarters sleeve, team insignia, and flat waist seam
  • Sweatshirt – long-sleeved athletic shirt of heavier material, with or without hood
  • Tunic – primitive shirt, distinguished by two-piece construction. Initially a men’s garment, is normally seen in modern times being worn by women
  • Shirtwaist – historically (circa. 1890–1920) a woman’s tailored shirt (also called a “tailored waist”) cut like a man’s dress shirt; in contemporary usage, a woman’s dress cut like a men’s dress shirt to the waist, then extended into dress length at the bottom
  • Nightshirt – often oversized, ruined or inexpensive light cloth undergarment shirt for sleeping.
  • Halter top – a shoulderless, sleeveless garment for women. It is mechanically analogous to an apron with a string around the back of the neck and across the lower back holding it in place.
  • Top shirt – a long-sleeved collarless polo shirt
  • Heavy shirt – a shirt with the heavy size that covers up under the neck
  • Onesie or diaper shirt – a shirt for infants which includes a long back that is wrapped between the legs and buttoned to the front of the shirt
  • Tube top (in American English) or boob tube (in British English) – a shoulderless, sleeveless “tube” that wraps the torso not reaching higher than the armpit, staying in place by elasticity or by a single strap that is attached to the front of the tube

Kebaya

A kebaya is a traditional blouse-dress combination that originated from the court of the Javanese Majapahit Kingdom, and is traditionally worn by women in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Burma, southern Thailand, Cambodia and the southern part of the Philippines. It is sometimes made from sheer material such as silk, thin cotton or semi-transparent nylon or polyester, adorned with brocade or floral pattern embroidery. A kebaya is usually worn with a sarong, or a batik kain panjang, or other traditional woven garment such as ikat, songket with a colorful motif. The kebaya is the national costume of Indonesia, although it is more accurately endemic to the Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese peoples.

The quintessential kebaya is the Javanese kebaya as known today is essentially unchanged as noted by Raffles in 1817. It consists of the blouse (kebaya) of cotton, silk, lace, brocade or velvet, with the central opening of the blouse fastened by a central brooch (kerongsang) where the flaps of the blouse meet, wore over kain .

    Kebaya blouseThe blouse is commonly semi-transparent and traditionally worn over the torso wrap or kemben. Kebaya blouse can be tailored tight-fitting or loose-fitting, made from various materials, from cotton or velvet, to fine silk, exquisite lace and brocade, desorated with stitching or glittering sequins. Today, the undergarment use under kebaya usually either corset, bra or camisole with matching colour. The more simple and modest undergarment wore by common village women, usually elderly women, is called kutang, which is a bra-like undergarment made from cotton.Kerongsang broochTraditional kebaya had no buttons down the front. To secure the blouse openings in the front, a decorative metal brooch is applied on the chest. It can be made from brass, iron, silver or gold, decorated with semi-precious stones. A typical three-piece kerongsang is composed of a kerongsang ibu (mother piece) that is larger and heavier than the other two kerongsang anak (child piece). Kerongsang brooch often made from gold jewelry and considered as the sign of social status of aristocracy, wealth and nobility, however for commoners and peasant women, simple and plain kebaya often only fastened with modest safety pin (peniti).Kain sarong or skirtKain is a long decorated clothes wrapped around the hips, secured with rope and wore as a kind of sarong or skirt. The skirt or kain is an unstitched fabric wrap around three metres long. The term sarong in English is erroneous, the sarung (Malaysian accent: sarong) is actually stitched together to form a tube, kainis unstitched, requires a helper to dress (literally wrap) the wearer and is held in place with a string (tali), then folded this string at the waist, then held with a belt (sabuk or ikat pinggang), which may hold a decorative pocket. In Java, Bali and Sunda, the kain is commonly batik which may be from plain stamped cotton to elaborately hand-painted batik tulis embroidered silk with gold thread. In Lampung, the kain is the traditional tapis, an elaborate gold-thread embroidered ikat with small mica discs. Sumatra, Flores, Lemata Timor, and other islands commonly use kain of ikat or songket. Sumba is famous for kain decorated with lau hada: shells and beads.

Sweater

A sweater is a garment intended to cover the torso and arms. A sweater is either a pullover or a cardigan, distinguished in that cardigans open at the front while pullovers do not. In British English, a pullover may also be called a jumper or jersey. Some British dictionaries include cardigans as a type of jumper, while others do not;  in the latter case, there is no hypernym equivalent to sweater covering both pullovers and cardigans. Sweaters are worn by adults and children of all genders; often over a shirt, blouse, T-shirt, or other top, but sometimes next to the skin. Sweaters were traditionally made from wool, but can now be made of cotton, synthetic fibers, or any combination thereof. Sweaters are maintained by washing or dry cleaning, and the use of a lint roller or pill razor.

The term “sweater” is a catch-all for a variety of knit garments. Although the term often refers to a pullover, it can also refer to a cardigan, a garment that opens and fastens down the front. Within either group, there is a great variety of design. Various necklines are found, although the V-neck, turtleneck and the crew neck are the most popular. The hemline is typically at hip height or slightly longer, just overlapping the waist of one’s pants or skirt, but can vary significantly. It can range from just below the bust in women’s garments to mid-thigh in either sex, or even longer in a knitted variation of the ponchoshirtdress. The sleeve length is also variable, ranging from full-length or three-quarters to short-sleeved, cap sleeves or sleeveless. The front seam or opening of a cardigan allows for further different styles, such as a surplice or a bolero jacket. All hems may have various types of borders, such as picots, ribbing and frills.

Knitted fabrics are generally somewhat elastic and have a softer hand (feel or drape) than woven fabric, sweaters that are more tightly fitted or have a soft drape may conform well to the body without requiring tailoring necessary in a woven garment such as darts, flares and gores. Even when such shaping is used, it can be knit into the fabric itself, without requiring seams.

Another type is a sweater vest.A sweater with an open front fastened by buttons or a zipper is generally called a cardigan, but the nomenclature for other styles in different dialects can be quite confusing. In British English, a sweater may also be called a pullover, jumper or jersey. In the United States however, “jumper” refers to a style of women’s sleeveless dress, worn over a blouse or shirt, and “jersey” refers to a knit shirt, especially if part of an athletic uniform. If sleeveless, such a garment may be called a “slipover” or “tank top” in British English, while “tank top” in US English refers to a sleeveless shirt or undershirt. In the U.S. a sleeveless sweater may also be called a sweater vest, especially if it has a V-neck and somewhat formal appearance resembling a formal vest, a garment known as a waistcoat in the UK In British English, “vest” refers to an undershirt. In South African English, a knitted sweater is always called a jersey, while sweater, when used, refers to a sweatshirt. In the sport of ice hockey, the top of a hockey player’s uniform had traditionally been a sweater; and even though modern hockey uniform tops are more commonly a jersey they are typically referred to as a “hockey sweater,” regardless of the style, but frequently, in the U.S. it is called a hockey “jersey”.